MS has traditionally been considered to be caused by immune cells from the body entering the brain and attacking myelin, a protective fatty layer that protects our nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. It is also thought that these immune attacks can damage the cells called oligodendrocytes which produce myelin. However, treatments targeting this immune attack are not always effective, which could possibly suggest that there are other mechanisms contributing towards MS disease progression.
One such possibility is that in MS, there is an increase in chemicals known as reactive oxygen species, which are naturally occurring chemicals that are a by-product of normal cellular processes. However, if these processes are not fully controlled, they can cause damage to human cells. This is referred to as oxidative stress or damage, and can lead to damage to the oligodendrocytes, the cells which form myelin. Oxidative stress has been studied in other neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and brain trauma, however this has not yet been deeply studied in MS.
This project is investigating the role of oxidative damage in disrupting the blood brain barrier, which may allow immune cells into the brain; as well as the role of reactive oxygen species in damaging the myelin coating around nerve cells. Ms Toomey has completed one trial in a laboratory model of MS, and has progressed to her second phase of optimising this MS model. Another component of this project is understanding the mechanism of myelin damage in MS compared to other types of neuronal injury. The team is currently analysing the brain tissue from a neurotrauma model of damage to tease out these processes and compare them to those at work in MS.
It is hoped this work will shed light on whether there are additional mechanisms damaging the brain and spinal cord in MS. If confirmed, this could reveal exciting new avenues for development of new therapies to combat myelin damage in MS.
Updated: 19 June 2020
Updated: 03 January, 2019
Laboratory research that investigates scientific theories behind the possible causes, disease progression, ways to diagnose and better treat MS.
Research that builds on fundamental scientific research to develop new therapies, medical procedures or diagnostics and advances it closer to the clinic.
Clinical research is the culmination of fundamental and translational research turning those research discoveries into treatments and interventions for people with MS.